Tag Archives: evolution

Evolution and the Bible

 

Although there ore some points of similarity between the skeletons of man and the ape, the differences are numerous and fundamental. As one scientist remarked, evolutionists might as well claim that man descended from any other form of life, because differences between man and the ape are as important as between man and other forms. The ape has neither chin nor forehead, Its foot grasps like a hand. Its teeth are not arranged in close rows. If it were forced to stand erect, it would be looking upwards, not forward. The average weight of its brain compared to that of its body is as 1 to 70. For man the ratio is 1 to 35. The ape cannot speak articulately.

 

How did the body of the first man originate? — According to the Bible, the body of the first man was made by God from the slime of the earth.

“And the Lord God formed man of the slime of the earth” (Gen. 2:7).

     

  1. The natural and obvious meaning of these words from the Book of Genesis is that the body of Adam was made directly by God from created substance. Such is the traditional Catholic interpretation.

    The Church teaches that the Genesis account is substantially historically true. But Catholics are not forbidden certain liberty of interpretation. For example, the “day” of creation is not necessarily – and not probably — our 24-hour day. We may consider the work done by God in one “day” as an immediate act, or as the result of a long period of development through the functioning of natural forces.

     

  2. Holy Scripture was not written for the purpose of serving as a technical reference work in science. The sacred writer’s aim was to tell the story of creation, for the belief of the people, not for scientific investigation.

What is the theory of evolution? — Evolution is a theory concerning the origin and development of plants, animals, and man.

     

  1. The theory holds that life began with the simplest forms, then developed into more complex forms, until at last the most complex form, man, was “evolved”.

    Some evolutionists hold that the monkey or ape and man both developed from a common ancestor. Darwin’s first man was a highly-developed ape. “Man when he was in honor did not understand; he hath been compared to senseless beasts, and made like to them” (Ps. 48:21).

     

  2. Many speak as if the theory of evolution had been thoroughly and scientifically proved. This is not so; at present conjectures still largely underlie the theory. Natural science alone can never explain how the first human body was actually produced.

    Unaided, it cannot explain the origin of inorganic matter, or the origin of life in the simplest organism. Divine Revelation alone can give the answer to the origin of man, and of all created things.

     

  3. The evolutionists based their theories on the discovery of the so-called “missing link,” from which the first man is supposed to have developed, a link between man and the ape. There is no such “missing link”. All skeletons discovered have been proved to be either of genuine men or of real apes. Of the distinguished modern scientists who deny that evolution is an established fact, we might mention: Fabre, the outstanding naturalist of modern times; Millikan, the great physicist; John Burroughs, the naturalist; Professors Richet (Paris), and Henderson (Harvard); Dr. Dwight, the anatomist; Alexis Carrel, and Sir Bertram Windle.

     

  4. However, even if the theory of evolution could be scientifically proved, even if a “missing link” should be discovered, the theory would not be opposed to Catholic doctrine, which merely requires belief in the immediate creation of Adam’s soul, in the image of God. Any “evolution” was surely begun by an Intelligent Cause: God.

    We therefore take literally the Book of Genesis, which tells of the peculiar creation of man, of the formation of the first woman from the first man, of the original happiness of our First Parents in the state of justice, of their integrity and immortality, of the test to which God put them, of their transgression of the divine command at the instigation of the devil in some form, of the loss of the original innocence, and of the promise of the Redeemer.

What is the origin of the human soul? — God directly creates every human soul out of nothing.

     

  1. From the very beginning, God has created every human soul out of nothing.

    Thus He created the soul of Adam, when after forming his body, He , 

    “breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul” 

  2. (Gen. 2:7). Every human soul is created at the same moment that one comes to life, at conception.

  3. Man’s soul is not produced from some other soul or matter. It is spiritual and simple. It did not exist before the person lived. It did not come to exist after he was already alive. Man’s life is due to his soul. As soon as the soul leaves the body, life ceases.

    The investigations of scientists have discovered a singular universality and sameness in ideas of right and wrong, a moral code, in all races and peoples, however primitive. These are universally looked upon as wrong: the wanton murder of one not an enemy, stealing from one’s own group, maltreatment of children, irreverence, incest, adultery. If this attitude resulted from fear of reprisal, why is not murder considered wrong when against an enemy? Why has incest always been regarded as wrong, when primitive men surely could have no idea of the evils of inbreeding? One must conclude that this universal conscience comes from One Source.

     

  4. Man’s soul is not derived from his parents. Only his body is derived from them. There is no possible “evolution” of the soul, for it is a spiritual substance, not subject to the laws of physical nature, and could not possibly be developed from a lower or material form of life.

    Manifestations of the soul, like cleverness, talent, traits of character, etc., by which children resemble their parents, are due to the attributes of the bodythat they derived from their parents, or to training in the family. If one holds a colored glass to the light the reflection will have the color of the glass. But the glass did not make the sun whose reflection is cast. Is even the mind a product of evolution? The most primitive man is capable of abstract reasoning. The most intelligent beasts cannot think in concepts.

How many centuries were there from Adam to Christ? — The Church has never given a decision; this question will perhaps never be answered.

     

  1. It is generally admitted that the Bible teaches nothing definite on the matter. The line of patriarchs, which it gives, with their ages, probably contains many gaps.

    A man is said to be a son of another, whereas he may only be a remote descendant. In the same way the Bible speaks of Our Lord as the Son of David, although David preceded Him 1000 years.

     

  2. Some Catholic theologians state that the age of man may be stretched to ten, or one hundred thousand years or even longer. Neither scientists nor theologians have come to a definite solution.

This article has been taken from “My Catholic Faith” I am not the author merely the distributor.
God Bless BJS!!

Advertisements

Creation/Revelation & Science

 

God is almighty. He can make anything from nothing, by a mere act of His divine will. It was thus that He created the heavens and earth and everything that is in them. Man can make many wonderful things, but he must make them out of something. He must use the things God created. Before he can make a stone house, he must have stone, cement, brick, etc. But God needs nothing to make anything. Only God could create the very first thing or matter in the universe.

 

What do we mean when we say that God is the Creator of heaven and earth? — When we say that God is the Creator of heaven and earth, we mean that He made all things from nothing by His almighty power.

“All things were made through him, and without him was made nothing” (John 1:3) “For in him were created all things” (Col. 1:16).

 

  1. In the beginning God alone lived. Then out of nothing, by His almighty power, He created heaven and earth, and all things in heaven and on earth. Only God can create; that is, He alone can make something out of nothing. Time began with this creation. Before it there was only eternity.

    “Before the mountains were made, or the earth and the world was formed, from eternity Thou art God” (Ps. 89:2).

     

  2. God created heaven and earth, and everything in heaven and earth. By this is meant everything which is not God. “Heaven” refers to the angels and their abode; and “earth” to all the material universe, including the earth, stars, planets, and all things and beings in them.

    God created everything by an act of his will. “He spoke and they were made; he commanded and they were created” (Ps. 32:9).

     

  3. In its first book, Genesis, Holy Scripture tells the story of Creation. In the beginning all was void and empty and dark; that is, there was nothing but chaos, which God Himself had created. Then out of this chaos God brought about order and law, creating heaven and earth.

    “In the beginning God created heaven and earth. And the earth was void and empty, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God moved over the waters” (Gen. 1:1-2).

     

In how many days did God create the world? — God created the world in six days, resting on the seventh day.

 

  1. These “days” of creation were not necessarily days of twenty-four hours like those we have today, since our sun had not yet appeared. Catholic theologians commonly interpret them as long periods of time. Thus the “seventh day” is still going on. For Holy Scripture says that on that day God rested; that is, He ceased to create new kinds of things.

    The Hebrew word for “day” may stand for a day, a week, a month, a century, or any indefinite period of time. Fundamentalism is an enemy of Science; it takes the “days” of Creation as of 24-hour periods, like the periods we call “days” in our time.

     

  2. Very probably the sacred writer divides creation into six days in order to consecrate each day of the week by connecting it with one or more of the Creator’s works; and to impress on the Jews the divine command to sanctify the seventh day.

    In the creation, God worked from the lower to the higher: He first made plants, and then He created the animals that would use them for food. Man was the crown of His earthly creations; all other works in the material universe, were for man’s enjoyment and use.

     

    1. On the first day, God said: “Be light made,” and light was made. Then He divided light from darkness, and called the light Day and the darkness Night. On the second day, God made the sky or firmament and divided the waters.

      The “heaven” thus made is the material heaven in which the stars, the moon, and the sun pursue their courses.

       

    2. On the third day, God made dry land to appear, bade it bring forth plants.

      In its account Holy Scripture concerns itself chiefly with our earth. Originally a fiery ball of gaseous matter, it gradually lost its heat, and land began to appear, apart from the sea. The moisture and warmth encouraged the development of organic life, the beginning of which had been implanted by God in the original primary matter.

       

    3. On the fourth day, God made the sun, moon, and stars. On the fifth day He made creeping things, birds, and fishes. On the sixth day, He made beasts and cattle. Finally, “God created man to His own image.”

      Man is different from the animals in his possession of reason and free will. Surpassing them all in dignity, he is the crown of God’s creations, the one for whom the world had been made ready.

       

    4. On the seventh day, God “rested … from all His work which He had done.”

      On the seventh day God ceased to make new kinds of things. This “seventh day” continues to the present; everything that is “made” now is a development or a combination of already existing matter. It is true that “nothing is new under the sun.” However, God continues to work in this sense: that He preserves and governs created things, and that He creates souls for those to be born.

       

Is there no contradiction between the account in the book of Genesis, and the latest discoveries of science, concerning the origin of matter?— No, there is not the least contradiction between the account in the book of Genesis, and the latest discoveries of science, concerning the origin of matter.

An apparent contradiction arises through the mistake of uninformed persons, who forget that the Church reads the Bible bearing in mind the principal object of the sacred writers.

 

  1. In writing the account of the creation, the sacred writer, under the guidance of the Holy Ghost, wished to impress upon the Jews (for whom he was writing) that there is but one God, and that He created the entire universe, living and lifeless.

    At that time the Jews were surrounded by idolatrous peoples who believed in the existence of many gods, and worshipped all kinds of creatures, even the sun, moon, plants, animals, and images.

     

  2. In pursuing his aim, the sacred writer used the form that was most effective, under the circumstances, to convey his meaning. It is a popular form: that is, it relates historical events in popular expression and order.

    The words used, while in themselves not scientifically exact, are in conformity with ordinary speech, and understandable by ordinary people. In the same way today we say, “The sun rises in the east”, even when we know through the investigations of science that the sun does not “rise” at all. Events are set down in an order not necessarily scientific, but suited to the understanding of a primitive people, and therefore of all mankind. We must remember that the sacred writer was not aiming to teach physics or anthropology, but Faith.

Do Revelation and Science contradict each other? — No; Revelation and Science do not, and cannot, contradict each other, for both are of God.

 

  1. There may at times be an apparent conflict between faith and science; but this is only apparent, and never real. God cannot contradict Himself. He cannot lead us into error.

    True Science is the handmaid of Religion. Science and the scientific method are means of arriving at the truth, and Religion is Truth. The greatest scientists have been Christians; a majority of outstanding leaders in science were Catholics, and many were priests. Only the shallow dabblers in science absurdly pretend that there is a conflict. The apparent conflicts arise from false interpretations, as when one takes for scientific truth what is false or not proved, or accepts as a doctrine of faith something not taught by the Church.

     

  2. There can never be a real conflict between Revelation and Science, because they deal with entirely different spheres. Revelation is concerned with Faith and spiritual things; physical Science is concerned only with material things.

    The Bible’s purpose is to teach salvation; but people make the mistake of considering it a treatise on Science. St. Thomas and St. Augustine taught that when the Bible describes some phenomenon of nature, it sets it down in terms of its appearances.

     

  3. No scientific experiment or theory can dispense with the necessity of a Creator. Unless His existence is accepted, we can never explain: (a) the origin of matter, even the most elementary; (b) the origin of motion; (c) the origin of the very first living organism, and of the spiritual soul of man; and (d) the origin of the order and law so apparent in the universe.

     

What are the only difficulties found by some scientists in the Biblical account of the creation? — The only difficulties found by some scientists in the Biblical account of the Creation are connected with the order or sequence of events followed in the Book of Genesis.

 

  1. If we study the proper interpretation, even these difficulties will be found not to exist.

    The account in the Book of Genesis is in logical, not chronological, order. The writer groups together similar works of creation, for the easier understanding of a primitive people.

     

  2. The Church has not made any positive definition of the way in which the Biblical account of Creation is to be interpreted.

    Catholics are free to accept the interpretation that they prefer, so long as they also accept the fact taught: that God created the whole universe and everything in it.

     

  3. Neither Revelation nor Science gives a definite answer to the question concerning the age of the world. Geologists assert that long periods of time were necessary for the formation of the various strata of the earth’s surface. Astronomers assert that some stars are a million light-years from the earth.

    A Catholic is free to hold on this point whatever he believes is a sound and scientific conclusion. The estimates of scientists vary.

     

 

As a practical demonstration that there is no contradiction between Divine Revelation and Science, we here list some of the thousands of scientists who through the ages have been practising members of the Catholic Church and at the same time outstanding in Science. These men not only found no conflict between science and religion, but became more firm in their faith as they delved deeper into science. As Marconi, one of the greatest scientists of our time, declared: “Science alone is unable to explain many things, and most of all, the greatest of mysteries — the mystery of our existence. I believe, not only as a Catholic, but also as scientist.” We do not include here the names of Catholics preeminent in navigation, architecture, art, music or literature, limiting ourselves to natural and physical science.


 Some Catholic Scientists

 

Algue, a priest, invented the barocyclonometer, to detect approach of cyclones. Ampere was founder of the science of electrodynamics, and investigator of the laws of electro-magnetism.
Becquerel, Antoine Cesar, was the founder of electro-chemistry. Becquerel, Antoine Henri, was the discoverer of radio-activity.
Binet, mathematician and astronomer, set forth the principle, “Binet’s Theorem.” Braille invented the Braille system for the blind.
Buffon wrote the first work on natural history. Carrell, Nobel prize winner in medicine and physiology, is renowned for his work in surgical technique.
Caesalpinus, a Papal physician, was the first to construct a system of botany. Cassiodorus, a priest, invented the watch.
Columbo discovered the pulmonary circulation of the blood. Copernicus, a priest, expounded the Copernican system.
Coulomb established the fundamental laws of static electricity. De Chauliac, a Papal physician, was the father of modern surgery and hospitals.
De Vico, a priest, discovered six comets. Descartes founded analytical geometry.
Dumas invented a method of ascertaining vapor densities. Endlicher, botanist and historian, established a new system of classifying plants.
Eustachius, for whom the Eustachian tube was named, was one of the founders of modern anatomy. Fabricius discovered the valvular system of the veins.
Fallopius, for whom the Fallopian tube was named, was an eminent physiologist. Fizeau was the first to determine experimentally the velocity of light.
Foucault invented the first practical electric arc lamp; he refuted the corpuscular theory of light; he invented the gyroscope. Fraunhofer was initiator of spectrum analysis; he established laws of diffraction.
Fresnel contributed more to the science of optics than any other man. Galilei, a great astronomer, is the father of experimental science.
Galvani, one of the pioneers of electricity, was also an anatomist and physiologist. Gioja, father of scientific navigation, invented the mariner’s compass.
Gramme invented the Gramme dynamo. Guttenberg invented printing.
Herzog discovered a cure for infantile paralysis. Holland invented the first practical sub marine.
Kircher, a priest, made the first definite statement of the germ theory of disease. Laennec invented the stethoscope.
Lancist, a Papal physician, was the father of clinical medicine. Latreille was pioneer in entomology.
Lavoisier is called Father of Modern Chemistry. Leverrier discovered the planet Neptune.
Lully is said to have been the first to employ chemical symbols. Malpighi, a Papal physician, was a botanist, and the father of comparative physiology.
Marconi’s place in radio is unsurpassed. Mariotte discovered Mariotte’s law of gases.
Mendel, a monk, first established the laws of heredity, which gave the final blow to the theory of natural selection. Morgagni, founder of modern pathology; made important studies in aneurisms.
Muller was the greatest biologist of the 19th century, founder of modern physiology. Pashcal demonstrated practically that a column of air has weight.
Pasteur, called the “Father of Bacteriology,” and inventor of bio-therapeutics, was the leading scientist of the 19th century. Picard, a priest, was the first to measure accurately a degree of the meridian.
Regiomontanus, a Bishop and Papal astronomer; was the father of modern astronomy. Scheiner, a priest, invented the pantograph, and made a telescope that permitted the first systematic investigation of sun spots.
Secchi invented the meteorograph. Steensen, a Bishop, was the father of geology.
Theodoric, a Bishop, discovered anesthesia in the 13th century. Torricelli invented the barometer.
Vesalius was the founder of modern anatomical science. Volta invented the first; complete galvanic battery; the “volt” is named after him.
Other scientists: Agricola, Albertus Magnus, Bacon, Bartholomeus, Bayma, Beccaria, Behalm, Bernard, Biondo, Biot, Bolzano, Borrus, Boscovitch, Bosio, Bourgeois, Branly, Caldani, Cambou, Camel, Cardan, Carnoy, Cassini, Cauchy, Cavaliere, Caxton, Champollion, Chevreul, Clavius, De Rossi, Divisch, Dulong, Dwight, Eckhel, Epee, Fabre, Fabri, Faye, Ferrari, Gassendi, Gay-Lussac, Gordon, Grimaldi, Hauy, Heis, Helmont, Hengler, Heude, Hilgard, Jussieu, Kelly, Lamarck, Laplace, Linacre, Malus, Mersenne, Monge, Muller, Murphy, Murray, Nelston, Nieuwland, Nobili, Nollet, Ortelius, Ozaman, Pelouze, Piazzi, Pitra, Plumier, Pouget, Provancher, Regnault, Riccioli, Sahagun, Santorini, Schwann, Schwarz, Secchi, Semmelweis, Spallanzani, Takamine, Tieffentaller, Toscanelli, Tulasne, Valentine, Vernier, Vieta, Da Vinci, Waldseemuller, Wincklemann, Windle, and a host of others, too many to mention


This article has been taken from “My Catholic Faith” I am not the author merely the distributor.

God Bless BJS!!

Creationism and the Production of the World

I wanted to include a chapter from a book of Apologetics on the Catholic Faith concerning Creationism. As Christians we are constantly on the defense against many false theories of science, and in fact these theories (that are not even supported by complete scientific evidence), are crammed down our throats and that of our children in the education of the public schools (and even private), the curriculum of which our Godless nation gets to decide. A word about evolution,  I do not know a Christian out there that denies that evolution is a process that happens in our lifetime constantly. However, it does not explain the start of the universe at all and merely supports the change of things over time. If evolution was such a complete process we wouldn’t be worried about extinction, monkeys would be asking to be let out of their cages and trying to find jobs,  etc. but this is not the case. In fact all these “missing links” are fraudulent and lead scientists in circles along with the inaccuracies of radio carbon dating and so forth. I am hoping by presenting this chapter it will help one understand that Creationism is in fact the beginning and one true source of everything that we can perceive with our senses.

False Theories About The Production of the World:

Here we discuss Materialism and Pantheism. Materialism teaches that nothing exists but bodily being or matter, and that the world, as we see it, is but a development of an original mass of matter. Pantheism (from the Greek words pan, “all,” and theos, “God”) teaches that the divine substance alone exists, and that the world and all things in it are outpourings or manifestations of this substance.

1. Materialism – Nothing exists but bodily matter. There is no spirit, no soul, no God. Matter is eternal and uncaused. Matter is composed of tiny particles (atoms) which have an indwelling force of motion. The motion of atoms goes on exerting itself according to changeless physical laws. As a result of this motion, the atoms are variously grouped and united, and thus different “kinds” of bodies emerge-minerals, plants, brutes, men. But there is no real diversity among these things; there is only apparent diversity,  which is accounted for by atomic motion. All things in the world are as truly one in kind, and the product of an original and eternal mass of homogeneous matter, as a variety of differently shaped and differently cooked biscuits is the product of one original mass of dough.

Materialism cannot be true. If matter alone existed, then it would have to be self-existing.  Now, as we have seen, a self-existing being must be necessary and not contingent;  it must be infinite and not finite; it must be simple and not composed; it must be immutable and not full of change. But, as a fact, the world is contingent,  finite, composed, and full of change. Therefore,  matter cannot be self-existent, and it requires an efficient cause to account for its existence-a cause that is ultimately the First Cause, which is necessary,  simple,  infinite,  and immutable. No one can doubt that the world is contingent, else it would have to exist, and there could be no change in it; it would have to be always just what it is unchanged and unchangeable. No one can doubt that the world is finite, for it is made up of mensurable, limited objects, and the sum of limited things is finite and cannot be infinite.  No one can question the fact that the world is composed, for the world and things in it are made up of parts. No one can deny that the world is full of change, for it is clearly in motion (as the atomists themselves assert), and is full of births, deaths, renewals, physical change, chemical change, mechanical change.

If materialism were true, then mind and matter would be the same; or rather, mind would be but a phase or development of matter. But matter always has extension; and mind has no extension. Besides, mind can deal with things that transcend the limits of matter, things like unity, truth, goodness, honor, ideals, appreciation of poetry, music, art, etc. Further, if materialism were true, there could be no accounting for intellectual knowledge or free-will. Material objects are essentially individual, and intellectual knowledge is essentially founded upon universal ideas or concepts. Free-will is self-direction following intellectual judgement, and matter is essentially inert and not self-directive.

If materialism were true, then every one of the particles of matter (atoms) would be necessary, eternal,  infinite!  A thing made up of parts, as matter is made up of atoms,  can only amount to the sum of its parts, and if these be finite (as parts must be!) then the whole sum of parts is finite. Yet matter is infinite, says the materialists, for it is eternal and uncaused. Therefore, infinity must belong to each and every particle of matter. This conclusion is obviously absurd and self-contradictory. Hence materialism cannot be true.

Finally, if materialism were true, each atom of matter would be necessarily endowed with force of motion. Yet, as we have seen, motion is essentially a thing given, communicated, received. Motion is not self-originating, but must be traced to a first mover, itself unmoved. How, then, does the atom get its necessary motion?  If nothing but matter exists, motion in matter becomes an utter impossibility.  For all these reasons we reject materialism as a theory wholly incapable of explaining the production of the world.

2. Pantheism – There is but one substance; this is God. The world and all things in the world are either outpourings (emanations) of the divine substance, or manifestations of God. In other words, the world is to God what inlets are to the sea, what sparks are to the fire from which they spring; or the world is a manifestation of God as a smile is a manifestation of mind, or as a ripple on a lake is a manifestation of a condition affecting water, or as wind is a manifestation of atmospheric disturbance. Pantheism of the first type is called Emanationism; pantheism of the second type is called Phenomenalism. There is a third type of pantheism called Idealistic, of which we need only say that it is a very vague and abstract doctrine of God as a kind of idea (called The Absolute) which comes gradually out of its abstract state into concreteness by realizing itself in things.

Pantheism, in whatever form presented, identifies the world with God. This doctrine cannot be true. Pantheism contradicts reason. Reason demonstrates the impossibility of a cause producing itself as its own effect;  yet pantheism makes the First Cause and Necessary Being one with the world, which is a caused and contingent being. Further, pantheism teaches a kind of evolution in God (for He emits emanations, manifestations,  or develops concrete realization of Himself), and thus posits change in the Necessary Being, growth in the Perfect Being, improvement in the Infinite Being!

Pantheism contradicts consciousness. Each of us recognize himself as an individual being distinct from all others. This consciousness must be altogether deceiving if pantheism be true, for then we are nothing but emanations, manifestations, or “parts” of God! And if consciousness so deceives us, we must not trust it at all; so we cannot be sure of anything that we perceive or reason out: hence all doctrines, including pantheism, become utterly uncertain and futile; there is nothing left but the absurd self-contradiction of universal scepticism.

Pantheism would lead to unthinkable consequences in practical life. Pantheism destroys personality in men and makes all men one with one another and one with God. Thus there can be no individual free-will, no individual responsibility. The murderer and his victim, the saint and the sinner, the patriot and the traitor, are all one, are all God! There can be no crime then, for all human action is God’s action, and God cannot commit crime. Thus there is no morality,  and laws and governments become futile inanities. 

For these reasons we are forced to reject pantheism as a theory wholly incapable of explaining the production of the world. Pantheism and Materialism are called monism (from the Greek word monos “one,” “alone”) because they teach that the universe is made of one single kind of substance, viz., either the divine substance,  or matter.

The Fact of Creation:

With materialism amd pantheism rejected as utterly inadequate, we are left but one doctrine on the production of the world. This doctrine, therefore, must, by exclusion, be true. It is called the doctrine of Creationism, and it asserts that the world was produced by an act of God’s infinite will, which called it out of nothingness into real existence.

Creation is the production out of nothing of a thing in its entirety. It is, first of all, an act of production, of efficient causality. Further, creation is an act of efficient causality which produces the entire effect out of nothing. In this we notice that creation is different from all other acts of efficient production. A carpenter builds a house, but he does not create the house; his work is merely an adaptation and use of preexisting materials, and there is nothing preexistent for creation to deal with. A dressmaker may call the product of her art “a creation”; but it is obvious that her work is merely the arrangement and shaping of materials which she did not produce herself. A poet may call his latest sonnet “a creation,” but the poet does not create his thoughts and fancies: they are fundamentally drawn from a material world which the senses perceive,  and which the poet did not produce or help to produce. A creation is a thing produced without preexisting materials. To create is to produce a thing, entirely and completely,  out of nothing.

Now the world is a fact; it is here. In answering the question,  “How did the world get here?” we must not say that it caused itself, for that would be to assert the absurdity that it existed as cause to give itself existence as an effect. Nor can we say that the world is an outpouring,  a manifestation or realization of God, as pantheism teaches. Nor can we say that the world is eternal, uncaused, infinite, and necessary, as materialism asserts. There is only one answer left: the world was created. And thus, even now, we may say that the fact of creation stands proved by exclusion.

We offer also one direct or positive proof of the fact of creation. Whatever is found in a thing belongs to that thing of necessity, or is shared to that thing by another in which it is found of necessity. Thus if a piece of iron is hot, we know that, since iron is not of necessity hot, heat was communicated to the iron by that which is, of its nature, hot, viz., fire. Now, existence belongs of necessity only to that being which must exist and cannot be non-existent; in a word, existence belongs of necessity to God alone. Therefore, when other things are found in possession of existence,  it follows that existence was communicated to them by that which has existence of necessity, i.e. by God. That is to say, the chain of communicated existences  in things must ultimately lead to God, the First and Necessary Cause. Hence, existence in the world points to God as the Cause, the Producer of the world. Now, how did God produce the world? Not out of His own substance, for He is infinite and immutable. Not out of some other substance, for no substance exists which has not its existence from God, and if we say that God made the world out of pre-existing substance,  our question merely shifts to this substance,  and we ask, “How did God produce that?” Ultimately, we must reach the conclusion that God made substances out of no pre-existing substances at all. In other words, God made substances out of nothing, that is to say, He created substances. And whether the world were developed out of other substances into its present form, or was made just as we behold it, in any case the ultimate answer to the question of the world’s production is this: The world was created.



In Scripture we read that God made the world in six days. The Hebrew word “yom” is rendered by “day” in the English translation of the Bible. But “yom” really means a period of undetermined length. It matters not whether God willed (from eternity) that the world should develop slowly or quickly into its present form. In any case, there were six periods or stages of development in the work. This does not mean that the world “evolved” or that it did not; it merely means that six definite stages of creation are a revealed truth. We add, in passing, that it also means that man’s creation was a separate and distinct creation – a special act by which God breathed upon the face of man and man became a living soul. 

The six days of creation are not solar or sun days, for the sun was not made until the fourth day of creation. Whether they were long or short periods we do not know. Experimental science seems to indicate that they were long, very long. Time, however, has nothing to do with the fact. Time, indeed, comes into existence with creatures, and is a measure affecting creatures only, and not God. The six days of creation are known as the Hexahemeron, a word derived from the Greek hex, “six,” and hemera, “day.”

God freely chooses to create, for, since He is all-perfect, He is utterly free and in no wise necessitated in His acts. God is not moved or motivated to create. Hence God has no motive, in the strict sense of that term. Still, God has an end and purpose in creating, for he is most wise, and to act without purpose would  act unwisely. Hence, we rightly say that God has a purpose, an end in view, in creating, but that He is not stirred to create by any motive.

Now God  cannot have made creatures for themselves; creatures are utterly contingent and cannot be an end to themselves; they have nothing of being, nothing of value, to serve as an end except what God gives them. It must be, then, that God, in creating,  acts toward Himself as toward an end.  Hence God is not only the First Efficient Cause of creatures; He is also the Last End or Final Cause of creatures; He is also the Last End or Final Cause for which creatures exist. Theologians prove the truth that God creates for His external formal and objective glory. In a word, God creates for Himself as the only end worthy of divine action.

In this bodily world the chief of creatures (i.e., of things created) is man. Man alone of worldly creatures has a spiritual and immortal soul and  free will. Other creatures exist to help man maintain life and to achieve a measure of happiness here; they exist to help man to live his life on earth in a manner suitable to win him happiness for eternity. That man has a spiritual and immortal soul and free-will is proved in Rational Pschology, a department of Philosophy. Apologetics can give but the briefest of arguments-albeit the arguments are incontrovertible-for the existence of a spiritual and immortal soul and free-will in man.

1. Man has a spiritual soul. That which exercises spiritual (i.e., real but non-material) functions is itself spiritual,  for the action of a thing manifests its nature, and no effect can exceed its cause in excellence or perfection. Now the soul of man exercises spiritual functions. The soul, thinks, reflects, reasons, is aware of such non-material things as beauty, goodness, truth, unity, honor, glory, ideals. It has self-consciousness by which it can perfectly bend back or reflect upon itself-a thing which no material or bodily thing can do: the eye does not see itself seeing, the ear does not hear itself hearing, but the soul can think of itself thinking, can know itself knowing, can make itself and its acts the object of its own study and inquiry. Therefore the soul, since it exercises spiritual functions, is itself spiritual. 

2. Man has an immortal soul. Whatever is spiritual is simple, i.e., not made up of physical parts. Such parts are essentially the component elements of material things. Now the soul of man is spiritual; hence it is not made up of parts. But whatever is not made up of parts cannot be separated into parts. And whatever cannot be separated into parts cannot die-for death is precisely the breakimg up of a living thing into its essential physical parts. Therefore, man’s soul cannot die. In other words. it is immortal. 

3.  Man has free-will. Man is possessed of an indestructible conviction that he is the author of his own acts, and that he has freely chosen to do what he has done, but could have done otherwise. Man is inevitably conscious of his own proper responsibility for what he does: he reproaches himself for having done some things, he approves of his conduct in other instances. If this consciousness be deceiving,  there is no truth to be had by human means at all, and there is no certainty in anything, no learning, no science.  Again, if man be not free in his choice of individual human acts, then all laws, governments,  courts, are absurdities. All human law is based upon the obvious fact of man’s freedom: laws are made to direct free choice lest it be hurtfully abused. Laws are not made for houses or trees or horses, but for man; for only the agent that can break a law is free to keep a law. The conviction of man’s freedom is  obvious and universal as the conviction of the world’s existence. Deny this conviction,  and you deny all validity in human knowledge. Man, therefore, has free-will.

Since man alone of all worldy creatures has the surpassing excellences of a spiritual and immortal soul and free-will, man is the most perfect, the chief, the most important, of creatures in THIS world.”

This chapter was transcribed by tradcat4christ from the book Apologetics by RT. REV MSGR. PAUL J. GLENN,  Ph.D S.T.D

God Bless BJS!!