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The Primacy of Peter



When Our Lord said to Peter, “And I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven,” He clearly meant: “I will give you supreme authority over My Church. You shall be My representative.” The true test of loyalty to Christ is not only to believe in Him and worship Him, but to honor and obey the representatives He has chosen. Our Lord chose St. Peter as His Vicar. It is rebellion against Christ to say to Him: “I will worship You, but I will not recognize Your representative.” This is what Christians do, who deny the authority of the successor of Peter.


    Did Christ give special power in His Church to any one of the Apostles? –Christ gave special power in His Church to Peter, by making him the head of the Apostles and the chief teacher and ruler of the entire Church. 

  1. When Simon, led by his brother Andrew, first met Christ, Our Lord said to him: “Thou art Simon, the son of John; thou shalt be called Cephas” (John 1:42). Christ spoke in Aramaic, and the original Cephas, or “Kepha” means stone or rock, which we interpret Peter. Our Lord must have some special purpose for having Simon’s name changed, particularly as the word Kepha was never used as a proper name then. 
  2. When, at Caesarea Philippi, Peter made the memorable confession of faith in the name of the Apostles: “Thou art the Christ, the Son of the Living God,” Christ promised to make Peter the head of His Church (Matt. 16:17-20). In reply Our Lord said: “Blessed. art thou, Simon Bar-Jona, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to thee, but my Father in heaven. And I say to thee, thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.”

    1. Our Lord changed Simon’s name to Peter, which means Rock. He said that He would make Peter the Rock on which His Church should be founded. As the foundation of a building holds up, supports, and preserves the building, so Peter was to hold the same office for Christ’s Church. 
    2. Our Lord. promised to Peter the keys of the kingdom of heaven. In ancient as well as modern times, keys are a symbol of authority. He who lawfully carries the key to a building has the right himself of entering and of admitting or excluding others. Our Lord said to all the Apostles, “Receive the Holy Spirit, whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained” (John 20:23). But to Peter alone did Our Lord address these words: “I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven.”


  3. Christ, after the Resurrection, fulfilled His promise, and appointed Peter head of the Church (John 21:15-17On the Lake of Gennesareth, “Jesus said to Simon Peter, “Simon, son of John, dost thou love me more than these do?” He said to him, “Yes, Lord, thou knowest that I love thee.” He said to him, “Feed my lambs.” He said to him a second time, “Simon, son of John, dost thou love me?” He said to him, “Yes, Lord, thou knowest that I love thee.” He said to him, “Feed my lambs.” A third time he said to him, “Simon, son of John, dost thou love me?” Peter was grieved because he said to him for the third time, “Dost thou love me?” And he said to him, “Lord, thou knowest all things, thou knowest that I love thee,” He said to him, “Feed my sheep.” By this Christ entrusted to Peter the whole flock, thus making him the head shepherd. The “lambs” (the weak and tender portion of the flock) are the faithful, and the “sheep” (those that nourish the lambs) are the pastors, bishops and priests. The sheep of Christ are those who submit to Him, the Good Shepherd (John 10: 14). Never did Christ say to any other Apostle: Feed My whole flock. As the shepherd is responsible for the flock, he is given authority comparable to his responsibility. 
  4. Christ also conferred on Peter special marks of distinction not conferred on the other Apostles. He gave him a new name. He chose him as a companion on the most solemn occasions. After the Resurrection, He appeared to Peter first, before showing Himself to the other Apostles. The Lord said: “Simon … I have prayed for thee that thy faith may not fail; and do thou, when once thou hast turned again, strengthen thy brethren” (Luke 22:31-32As with every well-regulated society, the Church needed a visible head; Christ appointed St. Peter visible head of the Church. The city has its mayor, the state its governor, the nation its President. At the head of every government is a president or king. Even in the family, the father is the head. Every corporation has a head. The Church is a visible society; that is, it is composed of human beings. It needs a head as well as any other organization. Christ is always its invisible, Head, but it needs a visible head to take His place among men.
    Did Peter actually exercise his primacy? –Yes, Peter actually exercised his primacy, and the other Apostles and the disciples recognized him as the head of the Church. 

  1. Peter’s name always stands first in the lists of Apostles; Iscariot’s is always last. St. Matthew even calls Peter the “first Apostle.” But he was neither first in age nor in election, for Our Lord had called Andrew; his elder brother, before him. He must therefore have been first in honor and authority. 
  2. It was Peter that proposed the election of another to take the place of Judas. In obedience to Peter’s advice, the Apostles put forward two among the disciples to choose from; and after praying, they chose Matthias (Acts 1:21-26). 
  3. It was Peter that preached the first sermon on the day of Pentecost. The Holy Ghost had descended on the Apostles; they spoke so that each person present (and there were many nationalities in the crowd) heard his own language being spoken. The people were amazed; and Peter spoke (Acts 2:14-36). 
  4. It was Peter that admitted the first converts from Judaism (Acts 2:38-41), as well as from paganism (Acts 10:5).“And he (Peter) ordered them (the Gentiles) baptized in the name of Jesus Christ” (Acts 10:48). This was a thing unheard of, that the Jews, “of the Faith”, should consort with “heathen”; but Peter broke all bonds. 
  5. Peter worked the first miracleHe gave a man lame from birth the power to walk (Acts 3:6-8). 
  6. Peter meted out the first punishmentAnanias (and later his wife Sapphira) had lied and cheated; and having been rebuked by Peter, fell down dead (Acts 5: 1-6). 
  7. Peter cast out the heretic Simon Magus. This heretic had wanted to purchase the power of the Apostles of bringing down the Holy Ghost on those on whom they laid hands (Acts 8:19-20). 
  8. Peter made the first visitation of the churches (Acts 31-32). 
  9. In the first Council at Jerusalem, there was much disputing, but when Peter spoke, all submitted (Acts 15:7-12).“After a long debate, Peter got up and said, … ‘But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus’ … Then the whole meeting quieted down” (Acts 15:7, 11-12). 
  10. After his conversion, St. Paul presented himself to Peter (Gal. 1: 18) . 
  11. Of the early churches established by the Apostles, the Church of Rome was the highest in rank. It was the See of Peter.

This article has been taken from “My Catholic Faith” I am not the author merely the distributor.God Bless BJS!!

​Our Lord Jesus Christ


Our Lord Jesus Christ is true God and true Man. As God, He is equal with the Father and the Holy Ghost. He is infinite, almighty, eternal. As man He has a body and soul like ours. Jesus Christ has two natures which cannot be separated, but which are distinct: the human, and the divine. But He is only one Person-the Divine Person. Jesus Christ is not a human Person.


    Is Jesus Christ more than one Person? –No, Jesus Christ is only one Person; and that Person is the second Person of the Blessed Trinity.Throughout the Gospels we can read about Jesus Christ as only one Person,-eating, sleeping, talking, and dying, as only one Person. 

  1. A “person” is a being that is intelligent and free, and responsible for his actions. We attribute to him whatever good or evil he does in the use of his human powers, because he owns or controls those powers. I am a human person, and everything I do is done by a human person. But Christ is a Divine Person, since He is God. Whatever Jesus Christ did while He was on earth was of infinite dignity, since it was the work of a Divine Person. 
  2. Jesus Christ is Our Lord, the Son of God the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity, true God and true Man. We call Him “Our Lord” because as God He is Lord and Master of all, and as our Saviour He redeemed us with His Blood. Christ is our Creator, Redeemer, Lawgiver. Teacher, and Judge. All these we mean when we say Our Lord. St. Paul says: “He is the Blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords … to whom be honor and everlasting dominion. Amen” (1 Tim. 6: 15,16). 
  3. There is only one Person, the Divine Person, in Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is not a human person. Everything in Him even as Man is divine and worthy of adoration. When we adore the Sacred Heart, or the Precious Blood, we do not adore mere flesh, but the flesh united to the divinity. In Christ the human and the divine are inseparable.
    How many natures has Jesus Christ? –Jesus Christ has two natures: the nature of God and the nature of man.


  1. A “nature” is a substance that is complete in itself as a source of activity. It differs from “person” in that while “person” determines what an individual is, “nature” determines what an individual can doIn Jesus Christ Our Lord there are two natures: His divine and His human nature. Therefore He could and did act as God; He could and did act as man, while all the time He was God the Son.
  2. Because of His Divine nature, Christ is truly God; because of His human nature, He is truly man. In His Divine nature He is the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity, God the Son, the Eternal Word. He took His human nature from His Mother. It was to the Blessed Virgin that the Archangel Gabriel announced: “And behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb and shalt bring forth a son; and thou shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great and shall be called the Son of the Most High” (Luke 1:32).Therefore Jesus Christ is both God and man; He has both Divine and human powers; He has knowledge, can will and act as God and as man. For example, with His human nature Jesus worked, ate, spoke, felt pain. But it was His divine nature that enabled Him to become transfigured, walk on the waters, raise the dead. 
  3. These two natures were united in a Divine Person Jesus Christ, the God-Man. They were intimately united, but they remained distinct. Neither was absorbed by the other. When iron and gold are welded into one solid mass, they continue to retain all their individual properties distinct from each other. The union of the divine and human natures in Christ is called the hypostatic union. Christ is true God and true man; this is why we call Him God-Man. Beings obtain their nature from their origin; for this reason a child has a human nature, from its human parents. Jesus Christ, the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity, has His origin from God the Father, and hence He has a divine nature; moreover, as man He was born of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and thus His human nature. This is why Christ often referred to Himself indiscriminately as “Son of God” or “Son of Man”. 
  4. As a consequence of these two natures, Christ had also two willsWe can see this very clearly in His prayer in the Garden of Olives before His Passion. He said: “Nevertheless, not My will, but Thine be done.” He was referring to His human will, for His divine will was surely the same as His Father’s.
    What does the name Jesus mean? –The name Jesus means Saviour or Redeemer. 

  1. Our Lord is called Jesus because He came to save men from sin, and to open the doors of heaven to them. Before the birth of Our Lord, an angel appeared to St. Joseph and said: “Thou shalt call His name Jesus” (Matt. 1:21). At the Annunciation the angel Gabriel had spoken the same words to Mary.“After eight days were accomplished, that the child should be circumcised, His name was called Jesus” (Luke 2:21). 
  2. We should say the name of Our Lord with great reverence. We should bow our head every time we utter it.“In the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those that are in heaven, on earth, and under the earth” (Phil. 2:10). The symbol IHS is composed of the first three letters of the name Jesus in Greek.
    What does the name Christ mean? –The name Christ means “The Anointed One”. 

  1. “Christ” is a Greek word, with the same meaning as “Messias”. In the Old Law it was the custom to anoint with oil prophets, high priests, and kings. Our Lord is the greatest of the Prophets. He is the High Priest Who offers Himself for all mankind. He is the King of angels and men. Therefore it is fitting that we should call Him Christ. He truly is the Anointed One. 
  2. We are called Christians because we are disciples of Christ. We believe in His teachings, and obey His commandments. The followers of Christ were first called Christians at Antioch. NOTE: We are also called Christians because we are members of the Holy Roman Catholic Church in the same way that being a member of the Jones family is indispensable to being a “Jones.” (RMO)Those who deny the doctrines of Christ, especially His divinity, are not Christians. Unfortunately, many today are Christians only in name. 
  3. Jesus Christ was announced to the world through many types. By “types” we mean persons or actions which strongly suggested or foreshadowed Christ. “Types” are to the reality what a photograph is to the actual person; but for lack of the reality, types are a good substitute, to give an idea of the substance foreshadowed. Some of the types of Jesus Christ were: the gentle and just Abel, who was murdered by his brother; Noe, who alone persevered and saved the human race from extinction by his justice; Isaac, who willingly carried the wood on which he was to have been sacrificed; Joseph, who was sold for a few pieces of silver, but later saved his brethren from death; Moses, who freed the Jews from slavery and led them to the Promised Land; David. who was born poor, did great deeds for his people, and became King

This article has been taken from “My Catholic Faith” I am not the author merely the distributor.
God Bless BJS!!

Creationism and the Production of the World

I wanted to include a chapter from a book of Apologetics on the Catholic Faith concerning Creationism. As Christians we are constantly on the defense against many false theories of science, and in fact these theories (that are not even supported by complete scientific evidence), are crammed down our throats and that of our children in the education of the public schools (and even private), the curriculum of which our Godless nation gets to decide. A word about evolution,  I do not know a Christian out there that denies that evolution is a process that happens in our lifetime constantly. However, it does not explain the start of the universe at all and merely supports the change of things over time. If evolution was such a complete process we wouldn’t be worried about extinction, monkeys would be asking to be let out of their cages and trying to find jobs,  etc. but this is not the case. In fact all these “missing links” are fraudulent and lead scientists in circles along with the inaccuracies of radio carbon dating and so forth. I am hoping by presenting this chapter it will help one understand that Creationism is in fact the beginning and one true source of everything that we can perceive with our senses.

False Theories About The Production of the World:

Here we discuss Materialism and Pantheism. Materialism teaches that nothing exists but bodily being or matter, and that the world, as we see it, is but a development of an original mass of matter. Pantheism (from the Greek words pan, “all,” and theos, “God”) teaches that the divine substance alone exists, and that the world and all things in it are outpourings or manifestations of this substance.

1. Materialism – Nothing exists but bodily matter. There is no spirit, no soul, no God. Matter is eternal and uncaused. Matter is composed of tiny particles (atoms) which have an indwelling force of motion. The motion of atoms goes on exerting itself according to changeless physical laws. As a result of this motion, the atoms are variously grouped and united, and thus different “kinds” of bodies emerge-minerals, plants, brutes, men. But there is no real diversity among these things; there is only apparent diversity,  which is accounted for by atomic motion. All things in the world are as truly one in kind, and the product of an original and eternal mass of homogeneous matter, as a variety of differently shaped and differently cooked biscuits is the product of one original mass of dough.

Materialism cannot be true. If matter alone existed, then it would have to be self-existing.  Now, as we have seen, a self-existing being must be necessary and not contingent;  it must be infinite and not finite; it must be simple and not composed; it must be immutable and not full of change. But, as a fact, the world is contingent,  finite, composed, and full of change. Therefore,  matter cannot be self-existent, and it requires an efficient cause to account for its existence-a cause that is ultimately the First Cause, which is necessary,  simple,  infinite,  and immutable. No one can doubt that the world is contingent, else it would have to exist, and there could be no change in it; it would have to be always just what it is unchanged and unchangeable. No one can doubt that the world is finite, for it is made up of mensurable, limited objects, and the sum of limited things is finite and cannot be infinite.  No one can question the fact that the world is composed, for the world and things in it are made up of parts. No one can deny that the world is full of change, for it is clearly in motion (as the atomists themselves assert), and is full of births, deaths, renewals, physical change, chemical change, mechanical change.

If materialism were true, then mind and matter would be the same; or rather, mind would be but a phase or development of matter. But matter always has extension; and mind has no extension. Besides, mind can deal with things that transcend the limits of matter, things like unity, truth, goodness, honor, ideals, appreciation of poetry, music, art, etc. Further, if materialism were true, there could be no accounting for intellectual knowledge or free-will. Material objects are essentially individual, and intellectual knowledge is essentially founded upon universal ideas or concepts. Free-will is self-direction following intellectual judgement, and matter is essentially inert and not self-directive.

If materialism were true, then every one of the particles of matter (atoms) would be necessary, eternal,  infinite!  A thing made up of parts, as matter is made up of atoms,  can only amount to the sum of its parts, and if these be finite (as parts must be!) then the whole sum of parts is finite. Yet matter is infinite, says the materialists, for it is eternal and uncaused. Therefore, infinity must belong to each and every particle of matter. This conclusion is obviously absurd and self-contradictory. Hence materialism cannot be true.

Finally, if materialism were true, each atom of matter would be necessarily endowed with force of motion. Yet, as we have seen, motion is essentially a thing given, communicated, received. Motion is not self-originating, but must be traced to a first mover, itself unmoved. How, then, does the atom get its necessary motion?  If nothing but matter exists, motion in matter becomes an utter impossibility.  For all these reasons we reject materialism as a theory wholly incapable of explaining the production of the world.

2. Pantheism – There is but one substance; this is God. The world and all things in the world are either outpourings (emanations) of the divine substance, or manifestations of God. In other words, the world is to God what inlets are to the sea, what sparks are to the fire from which they spring; or the world is a manifestation of God as a smile is a manifestation of mind, or as a ripple on a lake is a manifestation of a condition affecting water, or as wind is a manifestation of atmospheric disturbance. Pantheism of the first type is called Emanationism; pantheism of the second type is called Phenomenalism. There is a third type of pantheism called Idealistic, of which we need only say that it is a very vague and abstract doctrine of God as a kind of idea (called The Absolute) which comes gradually out of its abstract state into concreteness by realizing itself in things.

Pantheism, in whatever form presented, identifies the world with God. This doctrine cannot be true. Pantheism contradicts reason. Reason demonstrates the impossibility of a cause producing itself as its own effect;  yet pantheism makes the First Cause and Necessary Being one with the world, which is a caused and contingent being. Further, pantheism teaches a kind of evolution in God (for He emits emanations, manifestations,  or develops concrete realization of Himself), and thus posits change in the Necessary Being, growth in the Perfect Being, improvement in the Infinite Being!

Pantheism contradicts consciousness. Each of us recognize himself as an individual being distinct from all others. This consciousness must be altogether deceiving if pantheism be true, for then we are nothing but emanations, manifestations, or “parts” of God! And if consciousness so deceives us, we must not trust it at all; so we cannot be sure of anything that we perceive or reason out: hence all doctrines, including pantheism, become utterly uncertain and futile; there is nothing left but the absurd self-contradiction of universal scepticism.

Pantheism would lead to unthinkable consequences in practical life. Pantheism destroys personality in men and makes all men one with one another and one with God. Thus there can be no individual free-will, no individual responsibility. The murderer and his victim, the saint and the sinner, the patriot and the traitor, are all one, are all God! There can be no crime then, for all human action is God’s action, and God cannot commit crime. Thus there is no morality,  and laws and governments become futile inanities. 

For these reasons we are forced to reject pantheism as a theory wholly incapable of explaining the production of the world. Pantheism and Materialism are called monism (from the Greek word monos “one,” “alone”) because they teach that the universe is made of one single kind of substance, viz., either the divine substance,  or matter.

The Fact of Creation:

With materialism amd pantheism rejected as utterly inadequate, we are left but one doctrine on the production of the world. This doctrine, therefore, must, by exclusion, be true. It is called the doctrine of Creationism, and it asserts that the world was produced by an act of God’s infinite will, which called it out of nothingness into real existence.

Creation is the production out of nothing of a thing in its entirety. It is, first of all, an act of production, of efficient causality. Further, creation is an act of efficient causality which produces the entire effect out of nothing. In this we notice that creation is different from all other acts of efficient production. A carpenter builds a house, but he does not create the house; his work is merely an adaptation and use of preexisting materials, and there is nothing preexistent for creation to deal with. A dressmaker may call the product of her art “a creation”; but it is obvious that her work is merely the arrangement and shaping of materials which she did not produce herself. A poet may call his latest sonnet “a creation,” but the poet does not create his thoughts and fancies: they are fundamentally drawn from a material world which the senses perceive,  and which the poet did not produce or help to produce. A creation is a thing produced without preexisting materials. To create is to produce a thing, entirely and completely,  out of nothing.

Now the world is a fact; it is here. In answering the question,  “How did the world get here?” we must not say that it caused itself, for that would be to assert the absurdity that it existed as cause to give itself existence as an effect. Nor can we say that the world is an outpouring,  a manifestation or realization of God, as pantheism teaches. Nor can we say that the world is eternal, uncaused, infinite, and necessary, as materialism asserts. There is only one answer left: the world was created. And thus, even now, we may say that the fact of creation stands proved by exclusion.

We offer also one direct or positive proof of the fact of creation. Whatever is found in a thing belongs to that thing of necessity, or is shared to that thing by another in which it is found of necessity. Thus if a piece of iron is hot, we know that, since iron is not of necessity hot, heat was communicated to the iron by that which is, of its nature, hot, viz., fire. Now, existence belongs of necessity only to that being which must exist and cannot be non-existent; in a word, existence belongs of necessity to God alone. Therefore, when other things are found in possession of existence,  it follows that existence was communicated to them by that which has existence of necessity, i.e. by God. That is to say, the chain of communicated existences  in things must ultimately lead to God, the First and Necessary Cause. Hence, existence in the world points to God as the Cause, the Producer of the world. Now, how did God produce the world? Not out of His own substance, for He is infinite and immutable. Not out of some other substance, for no substance exists which has not its existence from God, and if we say that God made the world out of pre-existing substance,  our question merely shifts to this substance,  and we ask, “How did God produce that?” Ultimately, we must reach the conclusion that God made substances out of no pre-existing substances at all. In other words, God made substances out of nothing, that is to say, He created substances. And whether the world were developed out of other substances into its present form, or was made just as we behold it, in any case the ultimate answer to the question of the world’s production is this: The world was created.

In Scripture we read that God made the world in six days. The Hebrew word “yom” is rendered by “day” in the English translation of the Bible. But “yom” really means a period of undetermined length. It matters not whether God willed (from eternity) that the world should develop slowly or quickly into its present form. In any case, there were six periods or stages of development in the work. This does not mean that the world “evolved” or that it did not; it merely means that six definite stages of creation are a revealed truth. We add, in passing, that it also means that man’s creation was a separate and distinct creation – a special act by which God breathed upon the face of man and man became a living soul. 

The six days of creation are not solar or sun days, for the sun was not made until the fourth day of creation. Whether they were long or short periods we do not know. Experimental science seems to indicate that they were long, very long. Time, however, has nothing to do with the fact. Time, indeed, comes into existence with creatures, and is a measure affecting creatures only, and not God. The six days of creation are known as the Hexahemeron, a word derived from the Greek hex, “six,” and hemera, “day.”

God freely chooses to create, for, since He is all-perfect, He is utterly free and in no wise necessitated in His acts. God is not moved or motivated to create. Hence God has no motive, in the strict sense of that term. Still, God has an end and purpose in creating, for he is most wise, and to act without purpose would  act unwisely. Hence, we rightly say that God has a purpose, an end in view, in creating, but that He is not stirred to create by any motive.

Now God  cannot have made creatures for themselves; creatures are utterly contingent and cannot be an end to themselves; they have nothing of being, nothing of value, to serve as an end except what God gives them. It must be, then, that God, in creating,  acts toward Himself as toward an end.  Hence God is not only the First Efficient Cause of creatures; He is also the Last End or Final Cause of creatures; He is also the Last End or Final Cause for which creatures exist. Theologians prove the truth that God creates for His external formal and objective glory. In a word, God creates for Himself as the only end worthy of divine action.

In this bodily world the chief of creatures (i.e., of things created) is man. Man alone of worldly creatures has a spiritual and immortal soul and  free will. Other creatures exist to help man maintain life and to achieve a measure of happiness here; they exist to help man to live his life on earth in a manner suitable to win him happiness for eternity. That man has a spiritual and immortal soul and free-will is proved in Rational Pschology, a department of Philosophy. Apologetics can give but the briefest of arguments-albeit the arguments are incontrovertible-for the existence of a spiritual and immortal soul and free-will in man.

1. Man has a spiritual soul. That which exercises spiritual (i.e., real but non-material) functions is itself spiritual,  for the action of a thing manifests its nature, and no effect can exceed its cause in excellence or perfection. Now the soul of man exercises spiritual functions. The soul, thinks, reflects, reasons, is aware of such non-material things as beauty, goodness, truth, unity, honor, glory, ideals. It has self-consciousness by which it can perfectly bend back or reflect upon itself-a thing which no material or bodily thing can do: the eye does not see itself seeing, the ear does not hear itself hearing, but the soul can think of itself thinking, can know itself knowing, can make itself and its acts the object of its own study and inquiry. Therefore the soul, since it exercises spiritual functions, is itself spiritual. 

2. Man has an immortal soul. Whatever is spiritual is simple, i.e., not made up of physical parts. Such parts are essentially the component elements of material things. Now the soul of man is spiritual; hence it is not made up of parts. But whatever is not made up of parts cannot be separated into parts. And whatever cannot be separated into parts cannot die-for death is precisely the breakimg up of a living thing into its essential physical parts. Therefore, man’s soul cannot die. In other words. it is immortal. 

3.  Man has free-will. Man is possessed of an indestructible conviction that he is the author of his own acts, and that he has freely chosen to do what he has done, but could have done otherwise. Man is inevitably conscious of his own proper responsibility for what he does: he reproaches himself for having done some things, he approves of his conduct in other instances. If this consciousness be deceiving,  there is no truth to be had by human means at all, and there is no certainty in anything, no learning, no science.  Again, if man be not free in his choice of individual human acts, then all laws, governments,  courts, are absurdities. All human law is based upon the obvious fact of man’s freedom: laws are made to direct free choice lest it be hurtfully abused. Laws are not made for houses or trees or horses, but for man; for only the agent that can break a law is free to keep a law. The conviction of man’s freedom is  obvious and universal as the conviction of the world’s existence. Deny this conviction,  and you deny all validity in human knowledge. Man, therefore, has free-will.

Since man alone of all worldy creatures has the surpassing excellences of a spiritual and immortal soul and free-will, man is the most perfect, the chief, the most important, of creatures in THIS world.”

This chapter was transcribed by tradcat4christ from the book Apologetics by RT. REV MSGR. PAUL J. GLENN,  Ph.D S.T.D

God Bless BJS!!